Monday, April 16, 2012


                                          Press release

We, ‘MISSION JUSTICE’ had filed the right to information application with the Hon’ble Apex Court and reference of the issue, in consideration by us, was there in press and newspapers dated 13.04.2012. A copy of the right to information Application, reply, payment receipt and second RTI Application is herewith attached. We have filed the right to information application to know the details about the expenses incurred in the travel of the Hon. CJI to Mumbai to deliver the Nani Palkivala lecture series. We were under the impression that Nani palkivala Trust had invited the Hon. CJI and must pay for the expenses but were informed that it was an official tour and the expenses were borne by the Supreme Court Registry. We wanted to know the details of the stay of the official work and schedule of the Hon. CJI, who had come to Mumbai, along with his wife and Principle secretary and was the official was only limited to the lecture. We hence filed second application. We have paid a sum of Rs. 4.00 for obtaining copies of invitation and acceptance on 14.3.2012 and await the supply of copies.

‘MISSION JUSTICE’ is intending to work on child rights, Judicial reforms, RTI and senior citizens rights as we find that they are not implemented properly and the implementation itself will make all the changes.

The Hon. CJI during hearing of the matter related to deliberations on reporting norms for sub-judice matters has been quoted to have referred to the RTI Application with regard to the Nanipalkivala lecture. We have also sought the information and are unaware of any other application by any other person. Hence our comments are as under :

1. It is stated that “Since I took over as CJI, I have answered all the questions except a few. But the kind of questions and their numbers are exceeding limit”. “we are working hard but are not able to concentrate many a time because of these questions. Are these relevant for the press?”

We have to submit that RTI is not a question and answer sheet, but is a means of applying for information based on records. In case any question is asked and there is no record related to the same, the Ld. PIO is within his rights to reply that the records of the same are not available. But, if someone has asked schedule, time of landing and schedule/details of stay, then the itinerary and dairy records can be provided. The PIO is bound to do is duty independently and provide information, as is available anywhere in the records. The Hon’ble CJI can’t trouble the kind and answering Hon. CJI about any question being asked by any party and must reject questions for which there is no document. If otherwise he makes the Hon. CJI act as deemed PIO, then who will be the Appellate authority?

The PIO must not trouble the Hon. CJI with questions. It must not affect the concentration of the Hon. CJI as the litigants will suffer on account of Hon. CJI not being able to concentrate and it is something which the PIO must take care of.

It is quoted that “RTI act is a good law but there has to be a limit to it.” We feel that a citizen has a right to know about the Hon. CJI about his scheduled official trip, after the trip is over. The limits are set up in section 8 and if there is disagreement the PIO can reject it and let the same travel to CIC and ultimately will come back to the SC for it to sit over the cause related to themselves and decide the issue concerning the RTI and themselves.

2. We are of the opinion and support Mr. Divan’s arguments.

3. Infact there are several more issues which need guidelines and that too more desperately that Media reporting. This includes child rights, which affects crores of children and India has not acted as per the International treaty. We also feel that misuse of pro-women laws like 498A and domestic violence needs more guidelines, as its now an extortion tool and even the right of the children are violated, when despite statutory provision of father being natural guardian, unless it is against the welfare of the child is ignored and the extortionist gets the custody under threat and even false affidavits, statements and concealing of facts by women go unpunished and by this the men and their families rights are violated. We feel even judicial conducts needs guidelines and more so in light of allegations against ex CJIs.

4. We feel that when any judge gives a statement which shows that he has been personal affected by any cause, directly or indirectly related to the issue in hand or related or assumed to have been related by the judge, the Hon’ble Judge must remove himself from the cause. We are of the opinion that if the Hon. Courts themselves don’t lay down guidelines for their own conduct then the citizens, who are sovereign and to whom justice is the first guarantee in the preamble of Constitution, will feel uneasy. Each conduct of the Hon’ble SC and HC judges is expected to be careful, just and must also be seen to be just. We expect the same from the bench in light of statements as recorded in press. This reminds us of Lord Ram who asked her wife and queen Sita to leave the palace and banished her when it is reported to him that some subjects of his in Ayodhya believed that Sita was not fit due to her long captivity in Ravana's city. He did so as a king is expected to uphold moral principles in order to uphold his duty as a king. Thus, he did not think twice before hurting himself and his family for upholding the confidence of the masses and hence he is Lord. We have put up title of Lordship with same expectations on the Hon. Judges.


Sunday, February 19, 2012


Very recently there was a huge controversy over the muslim quota promised by Congress. The controversy started when the Union Law Minister Salmaan Khurshid violated the election code of conduct by promising 9% quota for muslims. The Election Commission, which had powers to file a FIR against the union Law Minister, made a complaint to the President, who inturn passed it on to the Prime Minister and the matter was burried. Let us not forget that the Prime Minister has been a spectator with full knowledge in most scams right from 2G to CWG to even elevation of Mr. Thomas as chief of Anti Corruption watch dog CVC. Hence, its natural that he will not act. President Pratibha Patil's son and Congress MLA Raosaheb Shekhawat has been issued notice by the district collector in connection with the seizure of Rs 1 crore unaccounted cash from Amravati, where civic polls are under way. Thus expecting Justice from Government is doing injustice to the very term JUSTICE.

Then there after even Union Minister for steel Mr. Beni Prasad Verma openly challange the EC on it and went ahead promising quota to muslims and and openly challanging the EC in presence of Digvijay Singh and Salman Khurshid. Thus, they were all part of this open violation of EC Rules.

The Congress has been in power since decades except for short period. They do nothing but make scams and make life miserable and when its election time the owls are out. Theu make promises through Law minister on quota and then through CM of Maharashtra on making Mumbai a dream city. They have no intention, but like Britishers are involved in divide and rule and give dreams to common man. The National Party even gives advertisement in newspaper on the day of Elections in Mumbai violating code of conduct. The newspapers who get regular advertisements can also feel the pressure of not writing against a party. Thus election rules are only for the citizens candidates and their supporters and these self styled uncrowned kings have no rules to follow and no ethics. The violation made one thing clear that Congress is a ethic-less party and rules are for common man to be flouted by the Government openly.

I have great deal of grudge against the Election Commission for not taking strong action in Mumbai and UP and a small one against judiciary which has been given special inherit powers so that they can act in the interest of Justice, when the Powerful themselves violate law. I feel an urgent need that the Chief Justice of the respective High Court must  suo moto act on this issue and people must not hesitate in recording request by letters to the Chief Justices. More letters means more pressure to act. If not these devils will become more fearless and more arrogant. The Judiciary must dare to remove these ministers and warn the Congress party that Power does not mean that they have become unaccountable and if the Judiciary does it I will say it has made the democracy more powerful and accountable and if it fails then I will say its collapse of democracy and its pillars.

I have a few things to put up to the common man :
1. If political parties flout the Election rules and are not accounted for then why have rules and why not have a clause exempting the ruling party from compliance?
2. Is Election Commission just a dummy of ruling Party?
3. If the Prime Minister and President don't cat against the complaints then are the not guilty of sheltering the wrong doers?
4. Is there no need to file FIR against the violators of code of Conduct and also EC/Prime Minister/ President for being silent?
5. Are we going to wait for couple of years for getting this issue raise and is the educated class becoming mentally slave of democracy murderers?

This and many more. I can just say one thing; that time has come that we activist rise from each corner of the nation and take up issues. Thus if 100 activist focus on this issue I am sure things will change. If Subramaniam Swamy can take on 2G, Some one can dare on Thomas, then why not we take up these issues. Infact MISSION JUSTICE is willing to act as a platform for activist to unite and plan and divide work within themselves and systematically irradiate the wrongs and give the Nation a better future in years to come...


Sunday, January 15, 2012

My speech which I would have given in reply to CJI speech at Nani palkivala Lecture

I attended the the Ninth Nani Palkivala Lecture on 14.1.2012. Shockingly I was given an envelop by "FORUM FOR PRESIDENTIAL DEMOCRACY" which is a political party. I was shocked as to my mind there cannot be a pamplet distributed by any political party in a function of Judiciary or by some the prominent judiciary person like CJI. I am sure this was not known to the Hon'ble Judicial members and High Court judges else they would not have allowed the pamplets. It was the responsibility of the organisers and they must be held liable for the same.

After all other things, began the speech of our own CJI Shri Kapadia.

After hearing him, I would have countered if I was allowed to react as under :
I am thankful to the Hon'ble CJI for giving this wonderful speech, which had inbuilt sense of defence and a reaction to criticism against the function of the Judicial system. I have heard you and salute you for one thing first. When national anthem was being sung very few people were singing it word by word and that included you. You began your speech by praising Mr. Nani Palkiwala and referred to landmark case of Keshavanand Bharti and how he assisted the Court in coming to the landmark judgment. Indeed he was remarkable and I wish I would have been the lucky ones to hear him argue. I am not. However his legacy inspires me. Sir Nani Palkivala fought this case which is a landmark case of human rights. If we miss lawyers like Nani then we also miss something on the bench. Today, I am sure that Judiciary is also so burdened that its rare to see that a large bench is formed to hear the cases of constitutional importance and more so on human rights. Infact let me tell you I am confused by the system, as I can tell you case where 3 judges issued order on a day and later 2 judges passed order on other day. The system is not correct and if even a single order is passed by 3 judges then 2 judges can't pass orders. Needless to say that with times everything has sunk and the system is on the verge of collapsing. This is just an example and many things are to be checked.

Let me also tell you sir, Nani Palkivala was a great champion of Human rights and today we miss such lawyers. Today the reality is also that we go on technicalities and don't mind dismissing PIL for such reasons, where as the earlier belief was that the human rights are so valuable that every thing else can be set aside for the same. Infact, the forefathers of the constitution realised that they may have missed something and hence gave all powers under the sun to the Higher Courts to do whatever is necessary to do Justice. Thus responsibility was casted upon the Judiciary by giving them extreme powers that they will rectify each and everything to do Justice. Let me bet upon it that Judges have no time and this power is generally not used. Thus the power was with responsibility and faith but is unfortunately rarely seen to have been exercised.

Sir, your speech was evolving around taxation and international trade.Well I disagree with you that they are most important. This is more so when I read about crores of people not having meals, crores of kids being victim of malnutrition, when education mafia is taking charge of system, when crores are eaten by system in corruption, when the common man has lost hope and faith. All trades and taxes are meaningless. If just a fraction of these victim turn anti social then the economy will be wiped of anyday. Trade and tax is for maintaining humanity and humanity is not for trade and taxation. The base has to be strong, else a stong building having thick walls will collapse as the weak base will give way.

Learned Sir you referred to minting of money by senior lawyers. Well I don't blame them for it but I blame the system where the junior lawyers have started feeling that if they don't hire a senior lawyer they wont be heard and clients cause will suffer. The reality is that a minute of error and the case is gone. The Judiciary cant afford to give them hearing and the right words have to be put up and only if the Judge is pleased the Notice will be issued. If instead there are more judges and Juniors are heard and time is given, these things can be eradicated. Blaming seniors will not solve the problem and the Judiciary must also share the blame. Judges and Lawyers are part of a system and they both must attempt to enhance the system rather than pass on the blames. I have heard Judges saying you all lawyers do this.... etc. and then they expect that lawyers must give extra ordinary respect. Respect is to be earned and not be in sweet tongue. The lawyers try to please judges by whatever way they can and we have overburdened the system with the word "LORDSHIP" in everyplace. Let us shed the world of Lords and create respect from heart and in minds of common man.

Your speech on how independent Judiciary was established was really informative. But the part that "don't paint all institution as corrupt" was too defensive. Sir when you have read so much about the past EX-CJI's and more so in last 5 years, the faith of common man has shaken. You are too defensive and let me tell you that your words will not make a difference as people trust only deeds and that too over a long period by all judges. The defence is seen from day one when your letter to and ex judge of Supreme Court was published in newspaper and the crux of letter was recorded. I disagree with your view that love for Justice is rare and that there is lobbying. If you know who is lobbing and creating pressure group then why not let the truth be out. The reality is that cash at door scam and other scams including Justice Sen and Justice Dinakaran and allegation against Justice Balakrishnan have shakened the system and that cannot be wiped off by speeches. Indeeds the Judiciary and Lawyers will have to do a lot to bring back the reputaion that is tarnished.

Learned sir. A good Judge does not care about what people say and what they lobby. A strong Judiciary just cares about the constitutional responsibility and Justice and Justice lives in his/her heart and mind. The good Judge is so great and above criticism that he answers them in his judgments and is unshakened by lobbyist and does his work. He does not need to clarify about his past track record and how poor he was. He is so bold that he goes to the level of having a battle with the government for Justice and dares to call upon each arm of Government to do its duty. He does not see whether the data is from affidavit or RTI. He just sees where there is injustice and how he can rectify it. He pardons his criticizers and only takes that part of it which he is required to take for giving Justice. He does not see what he will get from government after retirement but just sees the tears of a litigant. This character is very rare and hence very few people are on such high post. If this is missing I can say the choice is wrong.

Learned sir you say that there is loophole in our character. The loophole in character is in all persons including the Judiciary. After all we all live in this age of being human when we are at fault and being best when in power. I remember the remarks on Krishna radha by the bench which clearly reflected poorly on the bench and also hurt my religious feelings. Trust me if it was any other person the same Bench would have come down heavily on it.

Sir you have talked about disposal at many times in different speeches and patted the back of Judiciary. But I disagree with you. The performance is not that good as claimed. If disposal on merits is separated from compromise orders, disposal without going in merits the picture may be sour. Sir we have adopted a system of deciding matters in chambers without hearing the parties in Review. I call it a chamber of secrecy as no one sees Justice being done and more so when Review allowed is a rare virtue and Curative is the rarest. When Judges decide matter in chamber and there is no reasoned order the faith in the system shakes as there is room for gossips and allegations. Let us admit that we live in democracy and hearing and reasoned orders are a part of it. Time has come when Judiciary acts and seals the mouth of allegations and leaves no room of doubt as Justice must be done beyond doubt and any room for doubt and allegation makes the mechanism of Justice a meaningless exercise. A man may sit and decide everything in chamber without reason. Some of his decision may even be just and perfect but then also democracy requires seeing it.

Coming to your reaction on counter majority decisions. Let me tell you if public opinion did not affect Judiciary you would not have tried to explain us as to how lobbying is done and how all institutions are being painted corrupt. Your speech would have been just around how much accountability is needed and what is not needed. Learned Sir, you have stated that people don't read the collegium judgement and also just sit on chair and criticise and don't give solution. Well first if I dont have solution that does not bar me from pointing out what is wrong. Second we all have a birds eye view of the system just as you sit on bench and decide matter without being at the place of the incident. You base yourself on pleadings and common man on basis of what information he reads and sees. Nothing wrong in it. And if he has a solution please inform where should he send it. Today the common man has fear of contempt as he may not have proper words and his intention which may be good may not be recognised. He does not know how to send and to whom. Is the system ready to have an open debate then lets have it.

Sir, I have a solution but if you demanded it from listeners then it should have been a debate rather than a lecture.

The solution is simple. Please inform how many post are vacant in High Courts and ask lawyers above 10 years of practice to apply. Put the list for complaints (with evidence) from litigants and lawyers and after that decide who will be on bench. However today the system is of reference. Fill all post and see how fast we will clean the mess. Increase the number of Judges in Courts and have benches of Supreme Court in Mumbai, Kolkata and Chennai and make Justice affordable. I hope that things will be seen in positive manner as being a lawyer I hate people feeling that Justice is illusion and institution is corrupt. Rather I want to walk a mile and people shaking my hands and saying "PART OF AN HONEST SYSTEM.. WE ADORE YOU AND YOUR JUDGES"...

Advocate High Court, Mumbai


Wednesday, November 10, 2010

Letter supporting child Rights - please send on your letter head to 7 people

14th November, 2010

Hon’ble Smt. Pratibha Patil,
President of India,
Rashtrapati Bhawan, New Delhi – 110 004

Hon’ble Shri Mohammad Hamid Ansari
Vice President of India,
Room No. 208, Parliament House Annexure,
New Delhi – 110 001

Hon’ble Dr. Manmohan Singh,
Prime Minister of India,
Room NO. 152, South Block,
New Delhi – 110 001

Hon’ble Mr. M. Veerappa Moily
Ministry of Law and Justice,
Room No. 402A,
Wing Shastri B,
New Delhi – 110 001

Hon’ble Shri Kapil Sibal
Ministry for Human Resource Development,
Room No. 301, C wing, Shastri Bhavan,
New Delhi – 110 001

Hon’ble Smt. Krishna Tirath
Ministry of Women and Child Right Development
Shastri Bhavan,
New Delhi – 110 001

Hon’ble Mr. Mukul Wasnik,
Ministry of Social Justice & Empowerment
Room No. 250, A wing, Shastri Bhawan,
New Delhi – 110 001

Respected Madam / Sir,

This is to bring to your notice, that in 1992, more particularly on 19.11.1992, we the Nation have ratified articles and resolution passed and convention on the Rights of the Child more particularly adopted by General Assembly of the United Nations bearing Ref. No. A/RES/44/25 of 20-11-1989. Thereafter in 2005 we have passed an Act, The Commission for protection of Child Rights Act 2005, appointing child right commission to look into the matter relating to child rights.

Under the said convention all the signatory Nations have assured international community that they shall be implementing the articles of the said convention and shall play role in improving condition of the children of their Nation. Under the convention members / signatory state parties were bound to implement the rights of the children and for the purpose of convenience we are not reproducing the same but has been put on record by publics movement MISSION JUSTICE in August,2010.

However, it has been seen that apart from appointment of commission to look into the said rights, we have done nothing to recognize or implement the said rights as guaranteed by us before international community. We support the demand of MISSION JUSTICE fo implementation of the full articles of Convention and demand a single "FAMILY PROTECTION AND MAINTAINANCE ACT" for covering all issue of all family members.

We hope that the citizens demand as per MISSION JUSTICE for implementation of child rights is implemented immediately and fully and effectively.

With this we request you to look into this aspect of the voice of voiceless i.e. children, who are the future of this Nation and necessary measures / steps be taken with regard to protecting the interest of these children. We call upon the state to implement the said rights and also other rights by codifying all the children laws in one enactment of single Act and also transfer all criminal and civil provision in one single piece of legislation with regard to the family and child.

Thanking you in anticipation.
Yours truly,

Wednesday, September 8, 2010

CHILD RIGHTS - The neccesity

Under MISSION JUSTICE we have issued Notice to the Government on Child Rights. The Government in 1992 has ratified the convention of UN on child rights which was held in 1989. This means that the Government has promised that the said guarantees shall be implemented in totality by way of legislated law or otherwise.

In 2005, only a Commission for Child Rights have been setup which is non effective and has almost failed us on all counts.

We demand that all the articles of the said convention be implemented in form of a codified law which it will eradicate child labour, child abuse, parent alienation, uneducated children, child begging etc. And will give children an opportunity to grow and progress as a free sovereign citizen.

We feel that this cannot wait for years for representation and Court battles and the children need their right implementation immediately. The question is of crores of children and hence time cannot be granted. We wish to initiate a movement of massive signature campaign accross the Nation for 15 days from children's day till 30.11.2010 and hope that by the end of 2010 we will have settled laws in place. This is possible purely by protest and cooperation of each and every citizen of the Nation. We look forward for citizens, students, volunteers, film industry, sports stars, media and all the concerned to pool in all your resources and make an attempt to see that this issue gets the fastest result.
Jai Hind

Strategy for MISSION JUSTICE signature campaign a must

We wish that all NGO, Celebrities, People of social importance come on street and get signature campaign endorsing immediate implementation of child rights

We look upon the media for great help. If media covers the entire Convention Articles and inform the people about it and how it will affect the Nation then things will start moving. We look upon each society, MP, MLA taking up the job and doing door to door survey and on streets.

We call upon media channels to puts up a help desk. wherein if a common man finds any child right violation as per the articles, then the person can call up the help desk and media will cover that story of that child. If for instance I see a chottu doing child labour next door and I call up the help desk and the media covers the story, then it will be shameful for the right violator. We don’t seek any punishment for the violator, but the nearby people must send roses to the violator saying “GET WELL SOON FROM YOUR ILLNESS OF VIOLATOR”. Others who are also in the same position will be ashamed and will stop violation on their own. That the idealist way of getting things done without force.

This is unique campaign and We wish that Film and sports star also work in from CHILDREN'S DAY to 30.11.2010 and start helping this cause. 15 Days of pain will give smiles to millions of children.

We look forward to the students, Youth, Retired People, film Industry, TV Industry, NGO World, Activist, Media and the common man to extend support for this movement which will start on the 1st Navratra after the morning Aarti and end at Vijaydashmi. The balance schedule will be released soon on the blog.

Convention on the Rights of the Child Adopted and opened for signature, ratification and accession by


copy of the Convention as found by us on interenet :-


The States Parties to the present Convention,

Considering that, in accordance with the principles proclaimed in the Charter of the United Nations, recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world,

Bearing in mind that the peoples of the United Nations have, in the Charter, reaffirmed their faith in fundamental human rights and in the dignity and worth of the human person, and have determined to promote social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom,

Recognizing that the United Nations has, in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and in the International Covenants on Human Rights, proclaimed and agreed that everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth therein, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status,

Recalling that, in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the United Nations has proclaimed that childhood is entitled to special care and assistance,

Convinced that the family, as the fundamental group of society and the natural environment for the growth and well-being of all its members and particularly children, should be afforded the necessary protection and assistance so that it can fully assume its responsibilities within the community,

Recognizing that the child, for the full and harmonious development of his or her personality, should grow up in a family environment, in an atmosphere of happiness, love and understanding,

Considering that the child should be fully prepared to live an individual life in society, and brought up in the spirit of the ideals proclaimed in the Charter of the United Nations, and in particular in the spirit of peace, dignity, tolerance, freedom, equality and solidarity,

Bearing in mind that the need to extend particular care to the child has been stated in the Geneva Declaration of the Rights of the Child of 1924 and in the Declaration of the Rights of the Child adopted by the General Assembly on 20 November 1959 and recognized in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, in the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (in particular in articles 23 and 24), in the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (in particular in article 10) and in the statutes and relevant instruments of specialized agencies and international organizations concerned with the welfare of children, '

Bearing in mind that, as indicated in the Declaration of the Rights of the Child, "the child, by reason of his physical and mental immaturity, needs special safeguards and care, including appropriate legal protection, before as well as after birth",

Recalling the provisions of the Declaration on Social and Legal Principles relating to the Protection and Welfare of Children, with Special Reference to Foster Placement and Adoption Nationally and Internationally; the United Nations Standard Minimum Rules for the Administration of Juvenile Justice (The Beijing Rules) ; and the Declaration on the Protection of Women and Children in Emergency and Armed Conflict,

Recognizing that, in all countries in the world, there are children living in exceptionally difficult conditions, and that such children need special consideration,

Taking due account of the importance of the traditions and cultural values of each people for the protection and harmonious development of the child,

Recognizing the importance of international co-operation for improving the living conditions of children in every country, in particular in the developing countries,

Have agreed as follows:


Article 1

For the purposes of the present Convention, a child means every human being below the age of eighteen years unless under the law applicable to the child, majority is attained earlier.

Article 2

1. States Parties shall respect and ensure the rights set forth in the present Convention to each child within their jurisdiction without discrimination of any kind, irrespective of the child's or his or her parent's or legal guardian's race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national, ethnic or social origin, property, disability, birth or other status.

2. States Parties shall take all appropriate measures to ensure that the child is protected against all forms of discrimination or punishment on the basis of the status, activities, expressed opinions, or beliefs of the child's parents, legal guardians, or family members.

Article 3

1. In all actions concerning children, whether undertaken by public or private social welfare institutions, courts of law, administrative authorities or legislative bodies, the best interests of the child shall be a primary consideration.

2. States Parties undertake to ensure the child such protection and care as is necessary for his or her well-being, taking into account the rights and duties of his or her parents, legal guardians, or other individuals legally responsible for him or her, and, to this end, shall take all appropriate legislative and administrative measures.

3. States Parties shall ensure that the institutions, services and facilities responsible for the care or protection of children shall conform with the standards established by competent authorities, particularly in the areas of safety, health, in the number and suitability of their staff, as well as competent supervision.

Article 4

States Parties shall undertake all appropriate legislative, administrative, and other measures for the implementation of the rights recognized in the present Convention. With regard to economic, social and cultural rights, States Parties shall undertake such measures to the maximum extent of their available resources and, where needed, within the framework of international co-operation.

Article 5

States Parties shall respect the responsibilities, rights and duties of parents or, where applicable, the members of the extended family or community as provided for by local custom, legal guardians or other persons legally responsible for the child, to provide, in a manner consistent with the evolving capacities of the child, appropriate direction and guidance in the exercise by the child of the rights recognized in the present Convention.

Article 6

1. States Parties recognize that every child has the inherent right to life.

2. States Parties shall ensure to the maximum extent possible the survival and development of the child.

Article 7

1. The child shall be registered immediately after birth and shall have the right from birth to a name, the right to acquire a nationality and. as far as possible, the right to know and be cared for by his or her parents.

2. States Parties shall ensure the implementation of these rights in accordance with their national law and their obligations under the relevant international instruments in this field, in particular where the child would otherwise be stateless.

Article 8

1. States Parties undertake to respect the right of the child to preserve his or her identity, including nationality, name and family relations as recognized by law without unlawful interference.

2. Where a child is illegally deprived of some or all of the elements of his or her identity, States Parties shall provide appropriate assistance and protection, with a view to re-establishing speedily his or her identity.

Article 9

1. States Parties shall ensure that a child shall not be separated from his or her parents against their will, except when competent authorities subject to judicial review determine, in accordance with applicable law and procedures, that such separation is necessary for the best interests of the child. Such determination may be necessary in a particular case such as one involving abuse or neglect of the child by the parents, or one where the parents are living separately and a decision must be made as to the child's place of residence.

2. In any proceedings pursuant to paragraph 1 of the present article, all interested parties shall be given an opportunity to participate in the proceedings and make their views known.

3. States Parties shall respect the right of the child who is separated from one or both parents to maintain personal relations and direct contact with both parents on a regular basis, except if it is contrary to the child's best interests. 4. Where such separation results from any action initiated by a State Party, such as the detention, imprisonment, exile, deportation or death (including death arising from any cause while the person is in the custody of the State) of one or both parents or of the child, that State Party shall, upon request, provide the parents, the child or, if appropriate, another member of the family with the essential information concerning the whereabouts of the absent member(s) of the family unless the provision of the information would be detrimental to the well-being of the child. States Parties shall further ensure that the submission of such a request shall of itself entail no adverse consequences for the person(s) concerned.

Article 10

1. In accordance with the obligation of States Parties under article 9, paragraph 1, applications by a child or his or her parents to enter or leave a State Party for the purpose of family reunification shall be dealt with by States Parties in a positive, humane and expeditious manner. States Parties shall further ensure that the submission of such a request shall entail no adverse consequences for the applicants and for the members of their family.

2. A child whose parents reside in different States shall have the right to maintain on a regular basis, save in exceptional circumstances personal relations and direct contacts with both parents. Towards that end and in accordance with the obligation of States Parties under article 9, paragraph 1, States Parties shall respect the right of the child and his or her parents to leave any country, including their own, and to enter their own country. The right to leave any country shall be subject only to such restrictions as are prescribed by law and which are necessary to protect the national security, public order (ordre public), public health or morals or the rights and freedoms of others and are consistent with the other rights recognized in the present Convention.

Article 11

1. States Parties shall take measures to combat the illicit transfer and non-return of children abroad.

2. To this end, States Parties shall promote the conclusion of bilateral or multilateral agreements or accession to existing agreements.

Article 12

1. States Parties shall assure to the child who is capable of forming his or her own views the right to express those views freely in all matters affecting the child, the views of the child being given due weight in accordance with the age and maturity of the child.

2. For this purpose, the child shall in particular be provided the opportunity to be heard in any judicial and administrative proceedings affecting the child, either directly, or through a representative or an appropriate body, in a manner consistent with the procedural rules of national law.

Article 13

1. The child shall have the right to freedom of expression; this right shall include freedom to seek, receive and impart information and ideas of all kinds, regardless of frontiers, either orally, in writing or in print, in the form of art, or through any other media of the child's choice.

2. The exercise of this right may be subject to certain restrictions, but these shall only be such as are provided by law and are necessary:

(a) For respect of the rights or reputations of others; or

(b) For the protection of national security or of public order (ordre public), or of public health or morals.

Article 14

1. States Parties shall respect the right of the child to freedom of thought, conscience and religion.

2. States Parties shall respect the rights and duties of the parents and, when applicable, legal guardians, to provide direction to the child in the exercise of his or her right in a manner consistent with the evolving capacities of the child.

3. Freedom to manifest one's religion or beliefs may be subject only to such limitations as are prescribed by law and are necessary to protect public safety, order, health or morals, or the fundamental rights and freedoms of others.

Article 15

1. States Parties recognize the rights of the child to freedom of association and to freedom of peaceful assembly.

2. No restrictions may be placed on the exercise of these rights other than those imposed in conformity with the law and which are necessary in a democratic society in the interests of national security or public safety, public order (ordre public), the protection of public health or morals or the protection of the rights and freedoms of others.

Article 16

1. No child shall be subjected to arbitrary or unlawful interference with his or her privacy, family, home or correspondence, nor to unlawful attacks on his or her honour and reputation.

2. The child has the right to the protection of the law against such interference or attacks.

Article 17

States Parties recognize the important function performed by the mass media and shall ensure that the child has access to information and material from a diversity of national and international sources, especially those aimed at the promotion of his or her social, spiritual and moral well-being and physical and mental health. To this end, States Parties shall:

(a) Encourage the mass media to disseminate information and material of social and cultural benefit to the child and in accordance with the spirit of article 29;

(b) Encourage international co-operation in the production, exchange and dissemination of such information and material from a diversity of cultural, national and international sources;

(c) Encourage the production and dissemination of children's books;

(d) Encourage the mass media to have particular regard to the linguistic needs of the child who belongs to a minority group or who is indigenous;

(e) Encourage the development of appropriate guidelines for the protection of the child from information and material injurious to his or her well-being, bearing in mind the provisions of articles 13 and 18.

Article 18

1. States Parties shall use their best efforts to ensure recognition of the principle that both parents have common responsibilities for the upbringing and development of the child. Parents or, as the case may be, legal guardians, have the primary responsibility for the upbringing and development of the child. The best interests of the child will be their basic concern.

2. For the purpose of guaranteeing and promoting the rights set forth in the present Convention, States Parties shall render appropriate assistance to parents and legal guardians in the performance of their child-rearing responsibilities and shall ensure the development of institutions, facilities and services for the care of children.

3. States Parties shall take all appropriate measures to ensure that children of working parents have the right to benefit from child-care services and facilities for which they are eligible.

Article 19

1. States Parties shall take all appropriate legislative, administrative, social and educational measures to protect the child from all forms of physical or mental violence, injury or abuse, neglect or negligent treatment, maltreatment or exploitation, including sexual abuse, while in the care of parent(s), legal guardian(s) or any other person who has the care of the child.

2. Such protective measures should, as appropriate, include effective procedures for the establishment of social programmes to provide necessary support for the child and for those who have the care of the child, as well as for other forms of prevention and for identification, reporting, referral, investigation, treatment and follow-up of instances of child maltreatment described heretofore, and, as appropriate, for judicial involvement.

Article 20

1. A child temporarily or permanently deprived of his or her family environment, or in whose own best interests cannot be allowed to remain in that environment, shall be entitled to special protection and assistance provided by the State.

2. States Parties shall in accordance with their national laws ensure alternative care for such a child.

3. Such care could include, inter alia, foster placement, kafalah of Islamic law, adoption or if necessary placement in suitable institutions for the care of children. When considering solutions, due regard shall be paid to the desirability of continuity in a child's upbringing and to the child's ethnic, religious, cultural and linguistic background.

Article 21

States Parties that recognize and/or permit the system of adoption shall ensure that the best interests of the child shall be the paramount consideration and they shall:

(a) Ensure that the adoption of a child is authorized only by competent authorities who determine, in accordance with applicable law and procedures and on the basis of all pertinent and reliable information, that the adoption is permissible in view of the child's status concerning parents, relatives and legal guardians and that, if required, the persons concerned have given their informed consent to the adoption on the basis of such counselling as may be necessary;

(b) Recognize that inter-country adoption may be considered as an alternative means of child's care, if the child cannot be placed in a foster or an adoptive family or cannot in any suitable manner be cared for in the child's country of origin; (c) Ensure that the child concerned by inter-country adoption enjoys safeguards and standards equivalent to those existing in the case of national adoption;

(d) Take all appropriate measures to ensure that, in inter-country adoption, the placement does not result in improper financial gain for those involved in it;

(e) Promote, where appropriate, the objectives of the present article by concluding bilateral or multilateral arrangements or agreements, and endeavour, within this framework, to ensure that the placement of the child in another country is carried out by competent authorities or organs.

Article 22

1. States Parties shall take appropriate measures to ensure that a child who is seeking refugee status or who is considered a refugee in accordance with applicable international or domestic law and procedures shall, whether unaccompanied or accompanied by his or her parents or by any other person, receive appropriate protection and humanitarian assistance in the enjoyment of applicable rights set forth in the present Convention and in other international human rights or humanitarian instruments to which the said States are Parties.

2. For this purpose, States Parties shall provide, as they consider appropriate, co-operation in any efforts by the United Nations and other competent intergovernmental organizations or non-governmental organizations co-operating with the United Nations to protect and assist such a child and to trace the parents or other members of the family of any refugee child in order to obtain information necessary for reunification with his or her family. In cases where no parents or other members of the family can be found, the child shall be accorded the same protection as any other child permanently or temporarily deprived of his or her family environment for any reason , as set forth in the present Convention.

Article 23

1. States Parties recognize that a mentally or physically disabled child should enjoy a full and decent life, in conditions which ensure dignity, promote self-reliance and facilitate the child's active participation in the community.

2. States Parties recognize the right of the disabled child to special care and shall encourage and ensure the extension, subject to available resources, to the eligible child and those responsible for his or her care, of assistance for which application is made and which is appropriate to the child's condition and to the circumstances of the parents or others caring for the child. 3. Recognizing the special needs of a disabled child, assistance extended in accordance with paragraph 2 of the present article shall be provided free of charge, whenever possible, taking into account the financial resources of the parents or others caring for the child, and shall be designed to ensure that the disabled child has effective access to and receives education, training, health care services, rehabilitation services, preparation for employment and recreation opportunities in a manner conducive to the child's achieving the fullest possible social integration and individual development, including his or her cultural and spiritual development

4. States Parties shall promote, in the spirit of international cooperation, the exchange of appropriate information in the field of preventive health care and of medical, psychological and functional treatment of disabled children, including dissemination of and access to information concerning methods of rehabilitation, education and vocational services, with the aim of enabling States Parties to improve their capabilities and skills and to widen their experience in these areas. In this regard, particular account shall be taken of the needs of developing countries.

Article 24

1. States Parties recognize the right of the child to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health and to facilities for the treatment of illness and rehabilitation of health. States Parties shall strive to ensure that no child is deprived of his or her right of access to such health care services.

2. States Parties shall pursue full implementation of this right and, in particular, shall take appropriate measures:

(a) To diminish infant and child mortality;

(b) To ensure the provision of necessary medical assistance and health care to all children with emphasis on the development of primary health care;

(c) To combat disease and malnutrition, including within the framework of primary health care, through, inter alia, the application of readily available technology and through the provision of adequate nutritious foods and clean drinking-water, taking into consideration the dangers and risks of environmental pollution;

(d) To ensure appropriate pre-natal and post-natal health care for mothers;

(e) To ensure that all segments of society, in particular parents and children, are informed, have access to education and are supported in the use of basic knowledge of child health and nutrition, the advantages of breastfeeding, hygiene and environmental sanitation and the prevention of accidents;

(f) To develop preventive health care, guidance for parents and family planning education and services.

3. States Parties shall take all effective and appropriate measures with a view to abolishing traditional practices prejudicial to the health of children.

4. States Parties undertake to promote and encourage international co-operation with a view to achieving progressively the full realization of the right recognized in the present article. In this regard, particular account shall be taken of the needs of developing countries.

Article 25

States Parties recognize the right of a child who has been placed by the competent authorities for the purposes of care, protection or treatment of his or her physical or mental health, to a periodic review of the treatment provided to the child and all other circumstances relevant to his or her placement.

Article 26

1. States Parties shall recognize for every child the right to benefit from social security, including social insurance, and shall take the necessary measures to achieve the full realization of this right in accordance with their national law.

2. The benefits should, where appropriate, be granted, taking into account the resources and the circumstances of the child and persons having responsibility for the maintenance of the child, as well as any other consideration relevant to an application for benefits made by or on behalf of the child.

Article 27

1. States Parties recognize the right of every child to a standard of living adequate for the child's physical, mental, spiritual, moral and social development.

2. The parent(s) or others responsible for the child have the primary responsibility to secure, within their abilities and financial capacities, the conditions of living necessary for the child's development.

3. States Parties, in accordance with national conditions and within their means, shall take appropriate measures to assist parents and others responsible for the child to implement this right and shall in case of need provide material assistance and support programmes, particularly with regard to nutrition, clothing and housing.

4. States Parties shall take all appropriate measures to secure the recovery of maintenance for the child from the parents or other persons having financial responsibility for the child, both within the State Party and from abroad. In particular, where the person having financial responsibility for the child lives in a State different from that of the child, States Parties shall promote the accession to international agreements or the conclusion of such agreements, as well as the making of other appropriate arrangements.

Article 28

1. States Parties recognize the right of the child to education, and with a view to achieving this right progressively and on the basis of equal opportunity, they shall, in particular:

(a) Make primary education compulsory and available free to all;

(b) Encourage the development of different forms of secondary education, including general and vocational education, make them available and accessible to every child, and take appropriate measures such as the introduction of free education and offering financial assistance in case of need;

(c) Make higher education accessible to all on the basis of capacity by every appropriate means;

(d) Make educational and vocational information and guidance available and accessible to all children;

(e) Take measures to encourage regular attendance at schools and the reduction of drop-out rates.

2. States Parties shall take all appropriate measures to ensure that school discipline is administered in a manner consistent with the child's human dignity and in conformity with the present Convention.

3. States Parties shall promote and encourage international cooperation in matters relating to education, in particular with a view to contributing to the elimination of ignorance and illiteracy throughout the world and facilitating access to scientific and technical knowledge and modern teaching methods. In this regard, particular account shall be taken of the needs of developing countries.

Article 29 General comment on its implementation

1. States Parties agree that the education of the child shall be directed to:

(a) The development of the child's personality, talents and mental and physical abilities to their fullest potential;

(b) The development of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms, and for the principles enshrined in the Charter of the United Nations;

(c) The development of respect for the child's parents, his or her own cultural identity, language and values, for the national values of the country in which the child is living, the country from which he or she may originate, and for civilizations different from his or her own;

(d) The preparation of the child for responsible life in a free society, in the spirit of understanding, peace, tolerance, equality of sexes, and friendship among all peoples, ethnic, national and religious groups and persons of indigenous origin;

(e) The development of respect for the natural environment.

2. No part of the present article or article 28 shall be construed so as to interfere with the liberty of individuals and bodies to establish and direct educational institutions, subject always to the observance of the principle set forth in paragraph 1 of the present article and to the requirements that the education given in such institutions shall conform to such minimum standards as may be laid down by the State.

Article 30

In those States in which ethnic, religious or linguistic minorities or persons of indigenous origin exist, a child belonging to such a minority or who is indigenous shall not be denied the right, in community with other members of his or her group, to enjoy his or her own culture, to profess and practise his or her own religion, or to use his or her own language.

Article 31

1. States Parties recognize the right of the child to rest and leisure, to engage in play and recreational activities appropriate to the age of the child and to participate freely in cultural life and the arts.

2. States Parties shall respect and promote the right of the child to participate fully in cultural and artistic life and shall encourage the provision of appropriate and equal opportunities for cultural, artistic, recreational and leisure activity.

Article 32

1. States Parties recognize the right of the child to be protected from economic exploitation and from performing any work that is likely to be hazardous or to interfere with the child's education, or to be harmful to the child's health or physical, mental, spiritual, moral or social development.

2. States Parties shall take legislative, administrative, social and educational measures to ensure the implementation of the present article. To this end, and having regard to the relevant provisions of other international instruments, States Parties shall in particular: (a) Provide for a minimum age or minimum ages for admission to employment;

(b) Provide for appropriate regulation of the hours and conditions of employment;

(c) Provide for appropriate penalties or other sanctions to ensure the effective enforcement of the present article.

Article 33

States Parties shall take all appropriate measures, including legislative, administrative, social and educational measures, to protect children from the illicit use of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances as defined in the relevant international treaties, and to prevent the use of children in the illicit production and trafficking of such substances.

Article 34

States Parties undertake to protect the child from all forms of sexual exploitation and sexual abuse. For these purposes, States Parties shall in particular take all appropriate national, bilateral and multilateral measures to prevent:

(a) The inducement or coercion of a child to engage in any unlawful sexual activity;

(b) The exploitative use of children in prostitution or other unlawful sexual practices;

(c) The exploitative use of children in pornographic performances and materials.

Article 35

States Parties shall take all appropriate national, bilateral and multilateral measures to prevent the abduction of, the sale of or traffic in children for any purpose or in any form.

Article 36

States Parties shall protect the child against all other forms of exploitation prejudicial to any aspects of the child's welfare.

Article 37

States Parties shall ensure that:

(a) No child shall be subjected to torture or other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment. Neither capital punishment nor life imprisonment without possibility of release shall be imposed for offences committed by persons below eighteen years of age;

(b) No child shall be deprived of his or her liberty unlawfully or arbitrarily. The arrest, detention or imprisonment of a child shall be in conformity with the law and shall be used only as a measure of last resort and for the shortest appropriate period of time;

(c) Every child deprived of liberty shall be treated with humanity and respect for the inherent dignity of the human person, and in a manner which takes into account the needs of persons of his or her age. In particular, every child deprived of liberty shall be separated from adults unless it is considered in the child's best interest not to do so and shall have the right to maintain contact with his or her family through correspondence and visits, save in exceptional circumstances;

(d) Every child deprived of his or her liberty shall have the right to prompt access to legal and other appropriate assistance, as well as the right to challenge the legality of the deprivation of his or her liberty before a court or other competent, independent and impartial authority, and to a prompt decision on any such action.

Article 38

1. States Parties undertake to respect and to ensure respect for rules of international humanitarian law applicable to them in armed conflicts which are relevant to the child.

2. States Parties shall take all feasible measures to ensure that persons who have not attained the age of fifteen years do not take a direct part in hostilities.

3. States Parties shall refrain from recruiting any person who has not attained the age of fifteen years into their armed forces. In recruiting among those persons who have attained the age of fifteen years but who have not attained the age of eighteen years, States Parties shall endeavour to give priority to those who are oldest.

4. In accordance with their obligations under international humanitarian law to protect the civilian population in armed conflicts, States Parties shall take all feasible measures to ensure protection and care of children who are affected by an armed conflict.

Article 39

States Parties shall take all appropriate measures to promote physical and psychological recovery and social reintegration of a child victim of: any form of neglect, exploitation, or abuse; torture or any other form of cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment; or armed conflicts. Such recovery and reintegration shall take place in an environment which fosters the health, self-respect and dignity of the child.

Article 40

1. States Parties recognize the right of every child alleged as, accused of, or recognized as having infringed the penal law to be treated in a manner consistent with the promotion of the child's sense of dignity and worth, which reinforces the child's respect for the human rights and fundamental freedoms of others and which takes into account the child's age and the desirability of promoting the child's reintegration and the child's assuming a constructive role in society.

2. To this end, and having regard to the relevant provisions of international instruments, States Parties shall, in particular, ensure that:

(a) No child shall be alleged as, be accused of, or recognized as having infringed the penal law by reason of acts or omissions that were not prohibited by national or international law at the time they were committed;

(b) Every child alleged as or accused of having infringed the penal law has at least the following guarantees:

(i) To be presumed innocent until proven guilty according to law;

(ii) To be informed promptly and directly of the charges against him or her, and, if appropriate, through his or her parents or legal guardians, and to have legal or other appropriate assistance in the preparation and presentation of his or her defence;

(iii) To have the matter determined without delay by a competent, independent and impartial authority or judicial body in a fair hearing according to law, in the presence of legal or other appropriate assistance and, unless it is considered not to be in the best interest of the child, in particular, taking into account his or her age or situation, his or her parents or legal guardians;

(iv) Not to be compelled to give testimony or to confess guilt; to examine or have examined adverse witnesses and to obtain the participation and examination of witnesses on his or her behalf under conditions of equality;

(v) If considered to have infringed the penal law, to have this decision and any measures imposed in consequence thereof reviewed by a higher competent, independent and impartial authority or judicial body according to law;

(vi) To have the free assistance of an interpreter if the child cannot understand or speak the language used;

(vii) To have his or her privacy fully respected at all stages of the proceedings. 3. States Parties shall seek to promote the establishment of laws, procedures, authorities and institutions specifically applicable to children alleged as, accused of, or recognized as having infringed the penal law, and, in particular:

(a) The establishment of a minimum age below which children shall be presumed not to have the capacity to infringe the penal law;

(b) Whenever appropriate and desirable, measures for dealing with such children without resorting to judicial proceedings, providing that human rights and legal safeguards are fully respected.

4. A variety of dispositions, such as care, guidance and supervision orders; counselling; probation; foster care; education and vocational training programmes and other alternatives to institutional care shall be available to ensure that children are dealt with in a manner appropriate to their well-being and proportionate both to their circumstances and the offence.

Article 41

Nothing in the present Convention shall affect any provisions which are more conducive to the realization of the rights of the child and which may be contained in:

(a) The law of a State party; or

(b) International law in force for that State.


Article 42

States Parties undertake to make the principles and provisions of the Convention widely known, by appropriate and active means, to adults and children alike.

Article 43

1. For the purpose of examining the progress made by States Parties in achieving the realization of the obligations undertaken in the present Convention, there shall be established a Committee on the Rights of the Child, which shall carry out the functions hereinafter provided.

2. The Committee shall consist of ten experts of high moral standing and recognized competence in the field covered by this Convention. The members of the Committee shall be elected by States Parties from among their nationals and shall serve in their personal capacity, consideration being given to equitable geographical distribution, as well as to the principal legal systems. (amendment)

3. The members of the Committee shall be elected by secret ballot from a list of persons nominated by States Parties. Each State Party may nominate one person from among its own nationals.

4. The initial election to the Committee shall be held no later than six months after the date of the entry into force of the present Convention and thereafter every second year. At least four months before the date of each election, the Secretary-General of the United Nations shall address a letter to States Parties inviting them to submit their nominations within two months. The Secretary-General shall subsequently prepare a list in alphabetical order of all persons thus nominated, indicating States Parties which have nominated them, and shall submit it to the States Parties to the present Convention.

5. The elections shall be held at meetings of States Parties convened by the Secretary-General at United Nations Headquarters. At those meetings, for which two thirds of States Parties shall constitute a quorum, the persons elected to the Committee shall be those who obtain the largest number of votes and an absolute majority of the votes of the representatives of States Parties present and voting.

6. The members of the Committee shall be elected for a term of four years. They shall be eligible for re-election if renominated. The term of five of the members elected at the first election shall expire at the end of two years; immediately after the first election, the names of these five members shall be chosen by lot by the Chairman of the meeting.

7. If a member of the Committee dies or resigns or declares that for any other cause he or she can no longer perform the duties of the Committee, the State Party which nominated the member shall appoint another expert from among its nationals to serve for the remainder of the term, subject to the approval of the Committee.

8. The Committee shall establish its own rules of procedure.

9. The Committee shall elect its officers for a period of two years.

10. The meetings of the Committee shall normally be held at United Nations Headquarters or at any other convenient place as determined by the Committee. The Committee shall normally meet annually. The duration of the meetings of the Committee shall be determined, and reviewed, if necessary, by a meeting of the States Parties to the present Convention, subject to the approval of the General Assembly.

11. The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall provide the necessary staff and facilities for the effective performance of the functions of the Committee under the present Convention.

12. With the approval of the General Assembly, the members of the Committee established under the present Convention shall receive emoluments from United Nations resources on such terms and conditions as the Assembly may decide.

Article 44

1. States Parties undertake to submit to the Committee, through the Secretary-General of the United Nations, reports on the measures they have adopted which give effect to the rights recognized herein and on the progress made on the enjoyment of those rights:

(a) Within two years of the entry into force of the Convention for the State Party concerned;

(b) Thereafter every five years.

2. Reports made under the present article shall indicate factors and difficulties, if any, affecting the degree of fulfilment of the obligations under the present Convention. Reports shall also contain sufficient information to provide the Committee with a comprehensive understanding of the implementation of the Convention in the country concerned.

3. A State Party which has submitted a comprehensive initial report to the Committee need not, in its subsequent reports submitted in accordance with paragraph 1 (b) of the present article, repeat basic information previously provided.

4. The Committee may request from States Parties further information relevant to the implementation of the Convention.

5. The Committee shall submit to the General Assembly, through the Economic and Social Council, every two years, reports on its activities.

6. States Parties shall make their reports widely available to the public in their own countries.

Article 45

In order to foster the effective implementation of the Convention and to encourage international co-operation in the field covered by the Convention:

(a) The specialized agencies, the United Nations Children's Fund, and other United Nations organs shall be entitled to be represented at the consideration of the implementation of such provisions of the present Convention as fall within the scope of their mandate. The Committee may invite the specialized agencies, the United Nations Children's Fund and other competent bodies as it may consider appropriate to provide expert advice on the implementation of the Convention in areas falling within the scope of their respective mandates. The Committee may invite the specialized agencies, the United Nations Children's Fund, and other United Nations organs to submit reports on the implementation of the Convention in areas falling within the scope of their activities;

(b) The Committee shall transmit, as it may consider appropriate, to the specialized agencies, the United Nations Children's Fund and other competent bodies, any reports from States Parties that contain a request, or indicate a need, for technical advice or assistance, along with the Committee's observations and suggestions, if any, on these requests or indications;

(c) The Committee may recommend to the General Assembly to request the Secretary-General to undertake on its behalf studies on specific issues relating to the rights of the child;

(d) The Committee may make suggestions and general recommendations based on information received pursuant to articles 44 and 45 of the present Convention. Such suggestions and general recommendations shall be transmitted to any State Party concerned and reported to the General Assembly, together with comments, if any, from States Parties.


Article 46

The present Convention shall be open for signature by all States.

Article 47

The present Convention is subject to ratification. Instruments of ratification shall be deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.

Article 48

The present Convention shall remain open for accession by any State. The instruments of accession shall be deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.

Article 49

1. The present Convention shall enter into force on the thirtieth day following the date of deposit with the Secretary-General of the United Nations of the twentieth instrument of ratification or accession.

2. For each State ratifying or acceding to the Convention after the deposit of the twentieth instrument of ratification or accession, the Convention shall enter into force on the thirtieth day after the deposit by such State of its instrument of ratification or accession.

Article 50

1. Any State Party may propose an amendment and file it with the Secretary-General of the United Nations. The Secretary-General shall thereupon communicate the proposed amendment to States Parties, with a request that they indicate whether they favour a conference of States Parties for the purpose of considering and voting upon the proposals. In the event that, within four months from the date of such communication, at least one third of the States Parties favour such a conference, the Secretary-General shall convene the conference under the auspices of the United Nations. Any amendment adopted by a majority of States Parties present and voting at the conference shall be submitted to the General Assembly for approval.

2. An amendment adopted in accordance with paragraph 1 of the present article shall enter into force when it has been approved by the General Assembly of the United Nations and accepted by a two-thirds majority of States Parties.

3. When an amendment enters into force, it shall be binding on those States Parties which have accepted it, other States Parties still being bound by the provisions of the present Convention and any earlier amendments which they have accepted.

Article 51

1. The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall receive and circulate to all States the text of reservations made by States at the time of ratification or accession.

2. A reservation incompatible with the object and purpose of the present Convention shall not be permitted.

3. Reservations may be withdrawn at any time by notification to that effect addressed to the Secretary-General of the United Nations, who shall then inform all States. Such notification shall take effect on the date on which it is received by the Secretary-General

Article 52

A State Party may denounce the present Convention by written notification to the Secretary-General of the United Nations. Denunciation becomes effective one year after the date of receipt of the notification by the Secretary-General.

Article 53

The Secretary-General of the United Nations is designated as the depositary of the present Convention.

Article 54

The original of the present Convention, of which the Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish texts are equally authentic, shall be deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.

IN WITNESS THEREOF the undersigned plenipotentiaries, being duly authorized thereto by their respective governments, have signed the present Convention.